If Not Retention, Then What?
Research clearly indicates that retention is not helpful and has been found to be harmful for to students, particularly children in elementary grades.
Learn more about retention, and options to use instead: http://www.fpg.unc.edu/~pir/retention_brief.pdf
Reading and Math Achievement
The Early Reading and Mathematics Achievement of Children Who Repeated Kindergarten or Who Began School a Year Late
This Statistics in Brief examines the association betweenkindergarten enrollment status (e.g., repeating kindergarten ordelaying entry into kindergarten) and children’s first grade readingand mathematics achievement. Based on the Early Childhood LongitudinalStudy, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), the statistics in briefreports that in the fall of 1998 5 percent of all children inkindergarten were repeating kindergarten and 6 percent were attendingkindergarten for the first time even though they were age-eligible todo so a year earlier (i.e., delayed entry).
In terms of children’sfirst grade performance by kindergarten enrollment status, at the endof first grade, children who repeated kindergarten have lower readingand mathematics knowledge and skills than those who started on time. Atthe end of first grade, children whose kindergarten entry was delayed,in general, demonstrate slightly higher reading knowledge and skillsthan those who started on time. In mathematics at the end of firstgrade, children whose kindergarten entry was delayed kindergarten arebehind their classmates who began kindergarten on time.